"Get the habit of analysis - analysis will in time
enable synthesis to become your habit of mind."
-Frank Lloyd Wright
No exploration of a Black Belt Curriculum, or any traditional martial arts curriculum, should fail to include an analysis of hyung. Hyung is at the heart of our art; it is the synthesis of all we do in Tang Soo Do. Again, as we did with “the basics”, we should start with our Ideal Concept of becoming one with nature, and examine the nature of hyung through the principles of Um and Yang. Grandmaster Shin tells us:
When a person is performing hyung, they must utilize the aspect of Um and Yang in nature. The Um and Yang must me combined to the point where the individual becomes one with nature.[i]
It is difficult to isolate a single set of characteristics as they apply to hyung, because a hyung is, at its very nature, a union of many different characteristics in balance. The basic characteristics of hyung have been documented and discussed in numerous publications, and as such, a list of these characteristics becomes somewhat redundant here. Instead, we will look at what actually defines hyung, a word that we have already used to describe its nature: synthesis. Dictionary.com defines synthesis as “the combining of the constituent elements of separate material or abstract entities into a single or unified entity.”[ii] So, if hyung is truly synthesis, we must identify both the “unified entity” and the “separate material or abstract entities” involved. In order to do so, we need only to look to the English words we use to categorize Tang Soo Do and similar disciplines: martial art. Fortunately, this is one time that English actually does a passably acceptable job in translating an Asian idea. If the unified entity is “martial art”, then the separate entities are “martial” and “art”. Interestingly enough, we see that one of these entities is “material”, while the other is “abstract.” This is the essence of Um and Yang, and therefore the essence of Tang Soo Do, of nature, and of hyung.
Step 1: Identify an Advanced Concept
We have put forth that the nature of hyung is that it effectively combines all of the characteristics of Tang Soo Do. While true, this remains too close to the Ideal for us to deconstruct and analyze in a practical manner. In order to develop and explore an Advanced Concept regarding hyung practice, we must accept a scope that, while still quite broad, is, in the end, a bit more limited. We have actually already identified this Advanced Concept, and merely need to put it into words:
Hyung is the synthesis of “martial” and “art.”
We have defined synthesis, but must also define each of the separate pieces to be synthesized before we can begin our deconstruction of this concept. In so doing, we will once again determine a point from which we can guide our students towards developing their own habits of analysis and synthesis.
Numerous dictionaries and online resources define the word martial as: “of, relating to, or characteristic of war, warriors, soldiers, or the military.”[iii] This is, unfortunately, where the English language fails us somewhat, and why the term “martial art” itself is only passably acceptable. The Korean word for martial is “moo” or “mu” (Chinese: wu, Japanese: bu), and is depicted in hanja, or the pictorial/ideographical form of Korean writing, as:
This character is actually a combination of two different, yet equally important concepts, once again pointing to the duality at the core of Asian thought which cannot be separated from our practice of Tang Soo Do. The first idea represented in this character is that of a spear, sword, or polearm, connoting the ideas of war, military, conflict, or violence. The second idea, which is critical to understanding the concept of “martial” in the Asian sense, is represented by strokes that mean to stop, prohibit, or bring to an end, as in the suppressing of a revolt.[iv] Thus, “martial” as it relates to our practice of Tang Soo Do, should actually be defined as: of, relating to, or characteristic of methods to stop violence, conflict, or war.
In defining the word martial, we have a starting point, but only a starting point that will cover half of our Advanced Concept. In order to truly reach a starting point for our curriculum, we must define what we mean by art as well. This, in some ways is just as difficult as defining martial. As a more abstract entity, the human race has been trying to find an acceptable definition for art since the word first came into use. What art is, and what it isn’t, has sparked debate and argument that we do not pretend will be resolved here. We can, though, arrive at a workable definition that will fit our goal of relaying our Advanced Concept to our black belt students. Somewhat loosely defined, art is defined as “the quality, production, expression, or realm, according to aesthetic principles, of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance.”[v] While this definition may seem broad, it actually once again fails to convey the true meaning of the word as it is meant to be understood in Asian terms.
The Korean word for art, as we mean it in the term “martial art”, is pronounced as “sul” or “sool” (Chinese: shu, Japanese: jutsu) and is traditionally depicted as:
According to prolific martial arts writer Dave Lowry, this character is “written with the radical element for ‘road’ along with a character that acts phonetically to mean ‘twisting’ and simultaneously ‘adhering.’”[vi] Thus, in order to truly create art in an Asian sense, and therefore to truly crate art from our practice of hyung, we must adhere to a twisting road, or, in more simple terms, we must have unwavering dedication to that which is difficult, but ultimately necessary in order to reach a desired goal. Finally, we can define the word art, for our purposes, as:
the quality, production, expression, or realm, according to aesthetic principles, of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance, created only through unwavering dedication to that which is difficult, but ultimately necessary in order to reach a desired goal.
This may be a difficult definition to fully comprehend, but it is nonetheless necessary in order for us to begin our analysis of how to begin training our black belts in hyung.
Ultimately, even this will not serve to help us realize the full synthesis of hyung, for Tang Soo Do is not simply a martial art, it is a martial Way. Way, in the sense we mean it here, refers to our path or direction throughout all aspects of our lives, and is in Korean pronounced as “Do” (Chinese: Tao, Japanese: Do), and is traditionally represented by the following character:
True understanding of this character may be beyond our human ability, as it represents not only a person walking down a path, but The Path, that leads towards ultimate understanding and enlightenment. We cannot truly create a definition for this, because Do represents nature itself, and therefore the fundamental characteristics that comprise the entire universe. However, if we bring this back to a human scale, we can say that, ultimately, one is on The Path, or is following The Way, when one reaches a state of harmony and balance between mind, body and spirit. This is what we truly attempt to do when we practice hyung.
Step 2: Uncover Basic Concepts
Before we begin to deconstruct our Advanced Concept and start to discuss the execution of hyung, I feel it is important to first discuss a common misconception that many new black belts seem to have: that they “know” a form simply because they have memorized its movements and performed it many times. Recently, I conducted an experiment in my own classes in which the following question was asked:
“What is the highest form you know?”
Unsurprisingly, many of the black belts answered with the name of the most advanced hyung to which they had memorized the movements. Perhaps this is because they have been conditioned to answer this way, so the question was rephrased and presented as:
“What is the most advanced form with which you are reasonably comfortable?”
Again the majority of the black belts responded in the same way. One black belt, though, responded with “Sae Kye Hyung Il Bu”, the first form. This black belt had been paying attention. As Grandmaster Hwang Kee said:
It would be disrespectful to consider that one knows a form simply by virtue of having memorized a series of individual movements.[vii]
Grandmaster Shin echoes this sentiment, and goes on to emphasize that:
Knowing a specific number of hyung and their movements does not necessarily assign any value of excellence to the arts.[viii]
Anyone can learn the simple movements of the hyung, but we cannot call it a hyung simply because someone has learned a pattern of movements.[ix]
Despite the consistent reminders of this truth, many black belts still seem to fall into the trap of believing they “know” a hyung once they have memorized the pattern, and do not seem to want to be bothered with a deeper analysis. Some of this is due to the natural development of ego that comes with advancement in rank, and is something that every instructor must at some point face. However, it is possible that some fault lies with the instructor as well, if he or she does not to more than tell students they don’t yet understand the form. If we are to develop our black belts’ understanding of hyung, we must show them how much they still don’t know, and, in so doing, teach them to not resent hyung training, but instead embrace and appreciate it.
So, once a black belt has memorized the movements and sequence of a hyung, what comes next? How do we deconstruct the synthesis of Tang Soo Do into something that can be properly analyzed by our students in a way that will lead them toward discovery of the Basic Concepts? We have already begun in our deconstruction and classification of Tang Soo Do as a “martial art”, and in the deconstruction of the meaning of the corresponding hanja for “Moo Sool.” We must then begin with the side of this dichotomy that will be more familiar and recognizable to our students: the martial aspects of hyung. Grandmaster Shin again explains this process as follows:
After you have learned to do the movements you must learn the combative purpose of the moves. Without such understanding the form becomes simply an exercise sequence. You should learn where the attack or defense is being applied on the imaginary opponent, how it is being applied, and what results could be expected from the technique.[x]
Breaking this down, we can begin to form a set of drills for our black belts by executing the following steps:
1. Identify the combative purpose of the moves contained in hyung.
(Why do we do the techniques in question? – Understanding)
2. Identify ways in which the techniques in hyung are used against an opponent.
(How do we use the techniques in question? – Application)
3. Reflect upon the expected results of the applied techniques in hyung.
(When should we use a given technique? – Improvisation)
Most instructors, and probably most black belts, do not have a significant problem with step one listed above. We are able to pull out the individual techniques of the hyung, and even given sequences in the hyung and answer, at least with a basic level of comprehension, why that given technique or sequence would be used in a fight. This first stage of analysis will begin to identify whether a technique is designed to function more effectively defensively or offensively, as well as what techniques best work together in combination, and will begin to assign some level of meaning to the hyung.
It is at the second stage where many instructors and students begin to falter, or at least experience difficulty. When identifying applications for a technique, we are all often content with the instructor demonstrating a simplistic application of the technique, then having students execute the hyung while imagining the demonstrated applications against imaginary opponents. If we are truly to learn how to apply our techniques against an opponent, though, we must actually have an opponent. We must have our students execute the techniques of the hyung with a partner, and eventually, multiple partners. We must expose black belts to the concept that just because they know one application for a given technique, this still does not mean they “know” the hyung, nor even that they “know” the given single technique. They must be encouraged to explore many different applications for each technique, and then must be encouraged to build these upon these applications by executing a series of techniques in the hyung in combination. Eventually, the black belt student should be able to string together a set of applications, with multiple opponents, for the entire hyung. We have now uncovered a Basic Concept:
While the techniques in a hyung remain the same upon every execution of the hyung, the applications for those techniques do not.
At this stage, then, the black belt student will begin to feel comfortable, believing that they have successfully conquered the Application stage of learning a hyung. At this point, we must again force them into a state of discomfort, and teach them that which they still do not know. In all likelihood, even though our black belts have now identified and executed multiple applications for each of the techniques in a given hyung, they have probably only considered attacks and defenses from one, or perhaps two, different angles of attack. It is time for us to now expose them to additional drills in which we ask them to apply the techniques of the hyung against opponents attacking from many different angles. To start, let us examine the first movement of our first form, in which we step 90 degrees to the left and execute a left- handed low block. When our students first begin to work on applications of this technique with partners, they probably consider scenario one below, and, perhaps have begun to consider scenario two:
However, instructors should not let their black belts limit themselves in this way. Instead they must consider whether the same technique can still be applied in additional, potentially more difficult scenarios that are just as likely:
As the angle of attack changes, not only must the application change, but also the combative purpose of the technique. What might be a defensive block in one situation becomes an offensive attack in another, and a defensive throw in yet another. As instructors, we guide our black belts towards this Understanding through Application. We also begin the early stage of Improvisation, and students begin to identify when certain applications are better than others, and develop their own applications. Still, we are able to demonstrate to our black belts that there is more they don’t yet “know.” Consider the following:
In this case, we have added even more possible angles of attack from which the student must attempt to apply the given technique from any hyung. By illustrating a circle (with an infinite number of points) of attackers around a single defender, this image begins to reveal the truth, and in so doing, reveals some additional Basic Concepts:
While the techniques in a hyung remain the same upon every execution of the hyung, the angle of attack does not.
The possible angles of attack for which any technique may be applied are infinite.
At this point, students truly must reflect on their various applications and their expected results. If martial applications are meant to stop or deescalate violence or conflict, is this in fact what the applications of our students work to do, or they in fact increasing the amount of violence done and escalating the tensions which arise in a fight? If the selected applications are truly to embrace the essence of hyung, they must strive to do the former, and not the latter. The best ways in which to use our techniques must be dynamically Improvised, based upon the nature of the attack itself. As there are an infinite number of possible situations in which conflict arises, there are also an infinite number of possible ways in which that conflict can be stopped, only a few of which may be avoidance, deflection, use of superior force, intimidation, or immobilization. As Dave Lowry puts it:
Kata [Japanese for hyung] does not provide the “story” of a fight, it is rather the grammar that allows us to tell our own stories, as varied as the encounters one is likely to meet, with fluidity and a coherent structure that is likely to win us the battle.[xi]
Finally, we are able to illustrate in a practical manner to our students that they will never “know” everything about a hyung, because even the merely martial possibilities are endless.
We are beginning to see why true mastery of even one hyung takes a lifetime. Even with all of the above analysis, we have only begun to scratch the surface. What, then, of the art in hyung? Previously, we have defined the word art as it applied to Tang Soo Do to mean:
the quality, production, expression, or realm, according to aesthetic principles, of what is beautiful, appealing, or of more than ordinary significance, created only through unwavering dedication to that which is difficult, but ultimately necessary in order to reach a desired goal.
Grandmaster Shin has again already weighed in on this concept in his analysis of hyung:
Every single movement contains feelings, meanings, spirit, theory, and philosophy. Also, the hyung is symbolic of defense pride, honor, and devotion to one’s goals. Without understanding all of the above elements, hyung will simply be an exercise in physical exertion.[xii]
This quote contains all of the ideas represented in our definition of art. It indicates that properly executed hyung have aesthetic beauty, qualities that are of more than ordinary significance, and are representative of devotion (unwavering dedication) to one’s goals. How can we help our students to achieve this level? There is only one way: through repetition.
As Grandmaster Shin puts it:
The idea behind the creation of hyung is that through constant repetition, physical movements of the form become ingrained and automatic, and the mental battle becomes logical and calculated, to the point that we are no longer distracted by our own emotions or physical awareness. When this is achieved, the unification of Body, Mind, and Spirit begins, and we move closer to true aesthetic perfection.[xiii]
The founder of modern Okinawan and Japanese Karate, Gichin Funakoshi, also indicates that repetition and constant devotion to training is necessary in order to master a hyung (kata):
Others have mastered the kata you are practicing. Why then are you unable to? Is there something wrong with you? These are the questions you must ask yourself; then you must train until you fall from exhaustion; then soon you must continue, using the same strict regimen.[xiv]
Once again we are confronted with the idea that true mastery, and true art, in the practice of hyung can come only with steadfast devotion and unwavering dedication. To put it yet another way, as famous American football coach Vince Lombardi once said, “Practice does not make perfect. Only perfect practice makes perfect.”[xv] Perfect practice of hyung can only be achieved when one is willing to push oneself through countless repetitions with an unyielding and unending desire to perfect each and every movement. One must be willing to the hyung “one more time” every time, and must be willing to submit to the corrections of the instructor, however minute and insignificant they may seem, for in the pursuit of true artistic perfection, nothing is minute or insignificant.
The problem we tend to encounter as instructors when attempting to instill these beliefs in our students is a difficult one to overcome. Because our students are surrounded today by a world of instant gratification, and because the average age of our black belts is trending younger and younger, more and more modern black belts see the required repetition as boring. This is a concept that turns up surprisingly often in martial arts literature. Grandmaster Shin tells us, that without the proper guidance, “the student may misinterpret the hyung and see it as boring or useless. Unfortunately, this is a lament much heard by today’s students.”[xvi] Forrest E. Morgan, author of famed martial arts manual, Living the Martial Way, says (somewhat tongue-in-cheek), “Forms practice is probably the one feature of martial arts training most disliked by Americans. Let’s face it, it’s repetitive, it’s boring, and most students don’t see any point in it.”[xvii] Finally, martial arts essayist Wendell E. Wilson tells us, “Boredom with the repetitive nature of training and practice is a challenge facing everyone who wishes to master a skill or an art.”[xviii] We must then alter this perception, and in so doing we establish another Basic Concept of hyung training:
Constant and unwavering repetition, while necessary to produce art, does not have to be boring.
In fact, it easily argued that if something instills a feeling of boredom, there is no art in it. As this is clearly not the case with hyung, it is my belief that if a person is bored by the practice of hyung, than the individual is practicing hyung wrong.
How do we ensure that this trap does not ensnare our own students? We must make repetition interesting, fun, and we must, at times, fool our students by ensuring that while they are, in fact, repeating the same basic movements time after time, they actually believe they are doing something different. This is not to say that the traditional methods of repetition should be abandoned. Maintaining traditional training methods is crucial to our identity as an art, and cannot be sacrificed. However, it is important that we also identify additional methods for developing art in hyung, without simultaneously generating boredom.
We must analyze the aesthetic values of hyung, and create new drills that emphasize these aesthetics.
The fundamental aesthetic feature of hyung, beyond mere physical beauty attained by perfection of technique, is rhythm. Rhythm is an essential feature in the practice of hyung, and without it, one is neither creating art, nor truly practicing hyung. At the beginning stages of our training, it is important that we adhere to a set, pre-defined rhythm in our hyung that matches the prescribed count of the movements. At some point, this rhythm may not match the individual characteristics of a student, and at this point it begins to feel constraining and robotic. Grandmaster Shin explains this as follows:
The individual flow of movements are different according to the conditions of an individual’s inherent body structure, their mental and physical condition, and environmental circumstance. Also, the individual’s life cycle, such as breathing, pulse, metabolism, and individual habits affect the hyung. On the other hand, the hyung demands uniformity. In order to harmonize the two (standard requirement and individual condition) to perform in balanced beauty, a rhythm is absolutely necessary. This must be developed to an individual’s own excellence. This is why we must learn and practice by the count or command, and then again without the count or command.[xix]
We need to discuss this with our students, because it is actually at this point that Understanding has come to them, and Application and Improvisation can begin. Instead of feeling frustrated by the constraints of the traditional rhythm that was, up to this point, a completely necessary form of practice, they must be encouraged to explore their own rhythm and interpretation of the hyung. It is here that art is found. This is a particularly difficult transition for a black belt to make, and one that must be carefully monitored by an instructor who has been through this himself. As Dave Lowry puts it:
It is a narrow road to walk. If we start extemporizing too soon, before we truly understand the fundamentals of kata, we are wasting our time. If we continue, year after year, to just copy, never thinking of our individual take on these same kata, we are spinning our wheels as well.[xx]
How then are we to identify the students who are ready to make this transition, and how do we assist them in doing so? Primarily, we can do this through observation of their adaptability to changing rhythms set by the instructor. One of the best ways to do this is through the use of a drum, but can also be done effectively with the modulation of an instructor’s ki hap. In the normal execution of a hyung, the rhythm may be described as metronomic in nature, with predefined pauses between each count, yielding a basic structure that would be numbered as: 1,2,3,4,5,6, etc., in which the numbers indicate individual beats or techniques, and the commas indicate pauses. At some point, the instructor should begin to experiment with the rhythm of the hyung in order to test the student’s adaptability and readiness for change. In this case, the new rhythm may be 1-2, 3-4, 5, 6-7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13, 14-15-16, etc. Here, the dashes indicate that a series of beats or movements is performed in rapid succession, with little to no pause between, and the commas indicate the longer, extended periods of rest or pauses. Rhythm may continue to become increasingly complicated, or may be very simple, but it must always follow a pattern. Perhaps this is a pattern of similar beats, such as 1-2-3, 4-5-6, 7-8-9, or perhaps it is a pattern of changing, yet repeating beats, such as 1, 2-3, 4-5-6, 7, 8-9, 10-11-12. In any case, the student is performing the same movements, but in a way that the mind and body will perceive as different.
If a student is able to keep up with, and then replicate these changing rhythms on his own, without faltering, he has demonstrated Application, through the ability to apply various different rhythms to the hyung. He is now ready for Improvisation, the point at which he may develop and interpret his own rhythm, one that fits him in terms of body mechanics, personal philosophy, and attitude. While the student must be truly ready before attempting this, the result is art. We find that, at this stage,
No one hyung, as performed by each individual, is the same. Each individual brings their own unique beauty to each hyung. Therefore, the perfect hyung is a manifestation of the individual’s perfection.[xxi]
We have, ultimately, in our exploration of hyung as art, uncovered another of our Basic Concepts:
True “living” hyung is an ultimate expression of the individual.
Our hypothetical black belt students have now demonstrated proficiency with both the martial and the art in hyung. Can it be said, then, at this point that they “know” the hyung? Not yet. In order to truly master a hyung, and individual must demonstrate all this and more. The hyung must become a tool for embracing the Do in Tang Soo Do. He must move away from simple analysis and move towards the synthesis of Mind, Body, and Spirit. At this level, one cannot separate Understanding, Application, and Improvisation, because all three concepts are one and the same. It is at this point that the student is able to move beyond any artificial constraint, and is free to enjoy “meditation in motion”, in which he is able to contemplate the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of the hyung, while not actually dwelling on any of the three.
Step 3: Understand, Apply & Improvise
If we review the previous section of this Chapter, we see that it was impossible to separate the discovery of our Basic Concepts from the stages of Understanding, Application, and Improvisation. Each attempt to deconstruct the characteristics of hyung at an advanced level ultimately resisted being pulled apart, and instead had to be reconstructed into something new. In so doing, Understanding, Application, and Improvisation were all required and documented. However, it is possible to now examine the synthesis we have generated and see things at yet another level. In order to deconstruct hyung, we looked at its characteristics in terms of Moo, or martial, Sool, or art, and Do, or The Way. Each of these individual Advanced Concepts lends itself to a reconstruction and synthesis as well. In these terms, Moo implies Application, Sool implies Improvisation, and Do implies Understanding in its ultimate sense. If we reexamine our initial look at the characteristics of a black belt, then, we get:
This post proved to be extraordinarily difficult to write. Attempting to deconstruct that which is the total synthesis of our art, and is at the same time at its most basic foundation, is no easy task. I applaud those martial artists, masters, and Grandmasters who have paved the way for me to make this attempt. I only hope that in the end I have been able to add some of my own insight to a topic that can easily become overwhelming. In our analysis of hyung, we have discovered the following. Advanced Concepts appear in bold, while Basic Concepts appear in Italics:
- Hyung is the synthesis of “martial” and “art.” (and, in being so, provides a tool for seeking The Way.)
- While the techniques in a hyung remain the same upon every execution of the hyung, the applications for those techniques do not.
- While the techniques in a hyung remain the same upon every execution of the hyung, the angle of attack does not.
- The possible angles of attack for which any technique may be applied are infinite.
- Constant and unwavering repetition, while necessary to produce art, does not have to be boring.
- True “living” hyung is an ultimate expression of the individual.
It is hoped that a deeper analysis of this post may, in fact, cause readers to identify Additional Advanced and Basic Concepts inherent in hyung. In so doing, they can begin to form their own drills for their Black Belt Curricula. Concepts of changing tension and relaxation in instead of changing rhythms may be explored. Concepts of how performing the hyung at different angles affects its execution might be examined. Hyung, as the synthesis of Tang Soo Do , has much and more to offer in terms of the Conceptual Teaching Model. While hyung is the heart of the art, and the synthesis of Tang Soo Do, it is not all we do. The Black Belt Curriculum must include still more.
Kick. Punch. Easy Stuff.
[i] Shin, Jae Chul. (2000). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume IV: The Advanced Hyung Philadelphia, PA: Jae Chul Shin, n.pag.
[iii] http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/martial?s=t, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/martial, http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Martial
[iv] Lowry, Dave. (1995). Sword and Brush: The Spirit of The Martial Arts Boston, MA: Dave Lowry, p. 20
Wilson, Wendell E. (2010) The Meaning of Bu and Budo: http://www.minrec.org/wilson/pdfs/Concepts-- Bu%20and%20Budo.pdf
[vi] [vi] Lowry, Dave. (1995). Sword and Brush: The Spirit of The Martial Arts Boston, MA: Dave Lowry, p.23
[vii] Hwang, Kee. (1978). Tang Soo Do (Soo Bahk Do) Springfield, NJ: Hwang Kee, p.351
[viii] Shin, Jae Chul. (1994). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume II: The Basics Philadelphia, PA: Jae C. Shin, p.119
[ix] Shin, Jae Chul. (2000). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume IV: The Advanced Hyung Philadelphia, PA: Jae Chul Shin, p.3
[x] Shin, Jae Chul. (1994). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume II: The Basics Philadelphia, PA: Jae C. Shin, p.121
[xi] Lowry, Dave. (2002), Traditions: Essays on the Japanese Martial Arts and Ways Boston, MA: Dave Lowry. p. 45
[xii] Shin, Jae Chul. (2000). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume IV: The Advanced Hyung Philadelphia, PA: Jae Chul Shin, p.3
[xiii] Shin, Jae Chul. (1994). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume II: The Basics Philadelphia, PA: Jae C. Shin, p.115
[xiv] Funakoshi, Gichin. (1975). Karate-Do: My Way of Life New York, NY: Gichin Funakoshi, p. 107
[xvi] Shin, Jae Chul. (2000). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume IV: The Advanced Hyung Philadelphia, PA: Jae Chul Shin, preface
[xvii] Morgan, Forrest E. (1992). Living The Martial Way Fort Lee, NJ: Forrest E. Morgan, p. 69
[xviii] Wilson, Wendell E. (2010) Essays on the Martial Arts: Boredom and Repetition,
[xix] Shin, Jae Chul. (2000). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume IV: The Advanced Hyung Philadelphia, PA: Jae Chul Shin, p.7
[xx] Lowry, Dave. (2002), Traditions: Essays on the Japanese Martial Arts and Ways Boston, MA: Dave Lowry, p. 46
[xxi] Shin, Jae Chul. (2000). Traditional Tang Soo Do Volume IV: The Advanced Hyung Philadelphia, PA: Jae Chul Shin, p.8